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Photovoltaic: transfer to the network


Photovoltaic and network transfer: the differences between on-site exchange and online transfer. How the sale of photovoltaic energy works and what are the advantages.

Theinstallations photovoltaic, unless they are "island" (the so-calledstand alone) they are connected to the electricity grid working in an interchange regime.

The exchange scheme consists of withdrawingpowerelectricity from the grid when our plant photovoltaic it does not produce (at night, in the event of a fault or if the sky is excessively covered) while it allows the electricity produced in excess during peak solar hours to be transferred to the grid.

In this context, the holder of aphotovoltaic systemcan he:

  • Consume self-produced electricity, partially freeing oneself from the grid.
  • Withdraw electricity from the grid in the event of low production or high energy requirements (possible under the on-site exchange regime but not withonline sale).
  • Enter the self-produced and not consumed energy into the electricity grid.

At an operational level, the owner of a photovoltaic system can choose the path of the so-calledexchange on the spotor, alternatively, theonline sale. In practical terms:

  1. Photovoltaic and on-site exchange
    A photovoltaic system always connected to the grid underexchange on the spotallows you to produce photovoltaic energy and use it when needed by taking advantage of all three options listed above.
  2. Photovoltaic eonline sale
    With theonline sale, the owner of the photovoltaic system can consume the self-produced energy and feed the surplus energy into the grid (the surplus) but cannot withdraw electricity supplied by the national grid. The regime ofonline sale, also calleddedicated retreatis what allows you tosell photovoltaic energyto the Electricity Service Operator.

Photovoltaic and network transfer

Once the difference betweenexchange on the spotisdedicated retreat, let's get to the heart of the discussion and examine the possibilities that a photovoltaic plant owner has in the direct sale of the energy produced and not consumed.

  • A photovoltaic system with power not exceeding 200 kW can take advantage of the on-site exchange regime in addition to that of the online sale. Here the sale does not generate a real profit: the electricity fed into the grid and not consumed in the reference year goes to produce a credit. This credit is not cheap but repaid with the same energy that can be withdrawn from the grid within the three years following the one in which the credit was accrued.
  • A photovoltaic system with a power exceeding 200 kW as well as photovoltaic systems with a power up to 200 kW that do not use the on-site exchange service, can access theonline sale. In this case it is possible to sell the surplus of electricity produced with the plant and generate a real gain in economic terms.

Selling the photovoltaic energy of your plant

First you need to add that theonline saleit can be partial or total. The partial sale is the one seen above: a plant produces electricity, a part intended for self-consumption and a part (the surplus) is fed into the grid.

The total sale only provides for the injection into the grid of the electricity produced, so it does not provide for self-consumption. In this context, the owner of a photovoltaic system produces energy exclusively for sale to the Manager.

The online sale is divided, once again, into two different categories based on the type of sale chosen. The owner of aphotovoltaic systemcan sell electricity produced through the modeldirect or indirect transfer.

To simplify:

  • Indirect transfer -> dedicated collection.
    The electricity sold is purchased by the GSE.
  • Indirect transfer
    -> Power Exchange
    -> Sale to a wholesaler

The indirect sale uses a convention ofdedicated retreatstipulated directly with the Energy Services Manager (GSE).

The direct transfer can be made in two channels, both militant in the so-calledfree energy marketWe talk about the "Power Exchange" which sees the electricity market organized by GME as the "buyer" of energy (Energy Markets Manager) and the sale to a wholesaler who sees the stipulation of a bilateral contract.



Video: PV Power Plants Layouts (December 2021).