With thesustainable wineries, the essential link that connects the production of wine to mother earth, is also felt in the architecture. Theeco-sustainable wineriesthey have only been spreading in the last decade. Who manages awineryor have ever seen one, you know very well: cellars have a high electrical need! From the operation of production machinery to maintaining a microclimate for adequate wine storage. Not only electricity consumption, during the production ofwinein fact, it is necessary to use large quantities of water.
Theeco-wineries aim to exploit the intrinsic resources of the agricultural land, of the building materials used, trying to implement water saving and water recovery policies, as well as reuse waste materials from the production chain.
Design onesustainable cellarit is by no means an easy task, which is also why there are not many around eco-sustainable wineries! That ofwinemakingit is a complex world, a reality that encompasses various activities. With theeco-sustainable wineriesefficiency is the common denominator.
How sustainable wineries work
Solar panels and geothermal probes are allies of energy efficiency. Also in the field ofeco-cellars, renewable energy, can make a difference. The organic residues from the pruning and processing of grapes can be used for the production ofbiogas at zero km.
Thecellars, to constantly maintain the temperature suitable for storing wine, they can exploit air-conditioned environments or have the good fortune of being located in particularly favorable places. With theeco-wineries, the microclimate suitable for the conservation of wine is achieved by exploiting the principles ofbioarchitecture, namely: underground structures, vertical greenery, ventilation systems and natural lighting are just some of the measures used to minimize the use of energy.
As stated, water saving is also one of the goals to be pursued by technicians and engineers. According toDepartment of Agricultural Engineeringof the University of Turin, to produce just one liter of wine, a winery consumes 14 liters of water. Also according to the estimates of the unit, for every quintal of grapes processed, about 60 liters of wastewater are introduced into the environment. Not to mention the water consumption associated with the irrigation of the vineyards.
Great examples ofenergy-saving cellarsand water, have adopted an intelligent phytopraction system. In this context, the waste water is conveyed into small artificial lakes equipped with vegetable purification systems. By doing so, the water consumption linked to wine production is reduced by 50%.
Eco-sustainable wineries cannot exempt themselves from adopting the techniques required by biodynamic or organic agriculture. The aim is not simply to producebiodynamic wine or organic wine, but to reduce consumption and related costs.
To complete the picture are the recovery and reuse processes of waste materials, many of which can be destined for a biomass plant for the production of electricity or biogas.
According to an estimate conducted by the University of Siena, to produce a 0.75-liter bottle of wine, 1.83 kg of carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere. Only half of the emissions are related to actual winemaking, the other half is dictated by the activities that revolve around the production of wine, that is packaging for 38% and commercial sales activities for 26%.
An example ofsustainable cellarcould rely on geothermal energy to cool the rooms, on the energy produced from zero kilometer biomass to obtain hot water and solar collectors to illuminate the premises and photovoltaic systems to power the machinery. A targeted insulation as well as other essential precautions should not be missing:
- recovery of rainwater
- purification and chlorine exchange plants
- humidification system with circulating water in a closed cycle system incorporated in the walls
- use of lighter bottles
- use of labels made with recycled materials.