What is thePM10: meaning, definition, why it is bad for your health, how to protect yourself from particulate matter and lots of useful information.
L'World Health Organization, estimated that thefine dustare responsible for around 2 million deaths worldwide each year. According to the most recent data, only in Europe, deaths related to pollution fromfine dustit causes about 400,000 deaths annually. With this tragic premise, we must ask ourselves what are fine powders and in particular questioning the levels and the definition ofPM10.
With such alarming data, it's important to learn how to protect yourself from fine dust. For more information, please refer to the pagesrun around townisfine dust in the house.
What is thePM10
In simple terms:
the PM10is a set of pollutants consisting of dust, smoke, micro-drops and other liquid substances which in technical jargon are called"aerosol". These substances, dispersed in the air, manage to reach different parts of the respiratory system, causing serious damage.
The definition of PM10:
The acronym PM10 identifies one of the many substances in which theparticulate matter,that material present in the atmosphere in the form of microscopic particles.
The acronymPM10, literally meansParticulate MatterorParticular matter. The "10" corresponds to aaerodynamic diameter, that is, the diameter of a hypothetical matter with a spherical shape and a density equal to 1 g / cm³. So withPM10all those fine particles with a diameter equal to or less than 10 thousandths of a thousandmeter, or 10 µm, are identified.
The danger offine dustit is directly proportional to the size: the smaller the particles, the deeper they can permeate our respiratory system.
If microscopic particles with a diameter of 7 µm can reach the oral, nasal cavity and the larynx, particles with a diameter of 1.1 µm can reach and even damage the pulmonary alveoli.
PM10 fine dust emissions
When it comes to emissions of fine particles andPM10, the collective imagination immediately thinks of traffic discharges. It will sound strange to you to know that the emissions ofPM10related to road traffic discharges are comparable to those emitted by thecigarette smoke.
This disconcerting reality was revealed by a German investigation. In Germany, the figure for annual emissions of fine particles (PM10) related to road traffic is almost equivalent to that produced by the combustion of cigarettes. The only difference is that transport exhaust gases have seen a sharp reduction in recent years, while emissions ofPM10linked to cigarette smoking are constant over time, even if you go back 15 years. The data collected in Germany reveal:
- 6.100 tons ofPM10related to cigarette smoking
- 6,800 tons ofPM10related to road traffic
In 2000, the emissions ofPM10were broken down differently:
- 6.170 tons ofPM10related to cigarette smoking
- 29,400 tons ofPM10related to road traffic
It is clear how the sector isautomotiveis striving to reduce exhaust emissions with ever more efficient engines and alternative power supplies.
PM10and exhaust gases: does it pollute a petrol car or a diesel car more?
The war declared on diesel cars about the production offine dust, today, it doesn't make much sense. The transport sector is moving towards a new era, with Euro 6 engines, hydrogen cars and electric traction. The war on diesel is unwarranted because this fuel releases up to 15% less CO2 than a petrol engine. In addition, many car manufacturers associate a small electric powertrain with a diesel engine, resulting in hybrid cars that can cut overall emissions by an additional 30%.
From 1993 Euro 1 cars to today's Euro 6 cars, emissions offine powders, with diesel, they decreased by 97%. A diesel car, today, pollutes as much as a petrol car.
Wear on brakes, tires and asphalt also producesPM10 fine powders. German estimates associate this sector with a production ofPM10equal to 21,600 tons. Not just transport: industrial activities related to combustion, heating systems, thermoelectric plants and incinerators are also strong producers offine dust PM10.
PM10 and Annual Limits
The reduction ofparticulate matterit is an objective of world politics, including European and Italian. While in Italy traffic blocks are organized, in France bike and electric car sharing are promoted and in Germany the sale of electric cars is encouraged, the European Commission has imposed limits on the emission of fine particles.
Annual limits are often exceeded in large Italian cities. According to the ISPRA (Higher Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) yearbook, over 38% of the survey stations record exceedances of the air quality limits forPM10.
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