The performance of heat pumps they are evaluated in terms of performance independently of the different technologies. What changes according to the operating principle is the way of expressing this performance. In the case of compression heat pumps, the yield is measured in Coefficient Of Performance (COP) and Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER). For the absorption heat pumps, the criterion is instead that of Gas Utilization Efficiency (GUE).
Both the heat pumps transmission and absorption can work having air, water or earth as a source. The performance the best are obtained with those that have water as their source (the performance / price ratio is also good), but there are disadvantages related to the withdrawal-discharge of water and regulatory constraints.
Even the geothermal heat pumps they have good performance, but in turn have advantages and disadvantages, including high costs (higher than air and water technology) and limited availability due to the need for large surfaces. In general, heat pumps will have an advantage from the introduction of the new D1 tariff.
Performance of compression heat pumps. In ground technology (geothermal) these devices have a performance range of 3.9-4.8 in terms of COP and 2.6-3.5 in terms of EER for a price of 800-1,500 euros / kWe. In water technology the COP efficiency is 4-5 that of EER 3-4, for a price of 400-700 euros / kWe. In air technology we are at 3-4.5 and at 350-700 in EER.
Performance of absorption heat pumps. In this case, as we said at the beginning, the performance of heat pumps is evaluated in terms of Gas Utilization Efficiency GUE and the ranges are the following: earth (1.4-1.75), water (1.4-1, 75), air (1.3-1.5). Prices are quite distant: 950-1,700 euros / kWe for geothermal, 480-750 for water and 400-700 for air technology.
To the technologies of heat pumps (which today represent about 2% of the thermal production systems installed in buildings) is associated with a great market potential in the coming years for the production of thermal energy for heating, domestic hot water and even cooling in the case of reversible pumps. In terms of overall performance, excellent results are obtained with the technological combination of hybrid solar heat pump.