The acronym DO (Architecturally integrated photovoltaic) represents the Italianized form of the English acronym BIPV, which meansBuilding Integrated PhotoVoltaic,Architecturally integrated photovoltaic systems.
In simple terms, let's talk aboutintegrated photovoltaic, that is all those strategies that allow to incorporate the photovoltaic technology in a building structure without negatively impacting the aesthetics, indeed, bringing about an improvement.
Thearchitecturally integrated photovoltaicencompasses a large number of photovoltaic technologies ranging from thin films to walkable solar tiles.
With technologies developed in the sector ofintegrated photovoltaicIt is also possible to replace structural parts of a building even if up to now, the most common applications include the construction of integrated photovoltaic roofs or photovoltaic facades.
The history of integrated photovoltaic systems was born in the late 1970s when the first photovoltaic roofing was developed upon specific request of the American Department of Energy (DOE). At the beginning of the 1980s there were many projects in this sector, however the high costs of production and development slowed dramatically. Even today, after more than three decades, the costs ofintegrated photovoltaicthey remain much higher than the classic photovoltaic but given the different applications, the comparison is almost superfluous.
At the time ofEnergy bill, theintegrated photovoltaicenjoyed an increased incentive form. From 6 July 2013, the 5th Energy Account was completed and with it the direct incentives on the production of clean energy from photovoltaics ceased.
In replacement, those who intend to make use of theintegrated photovoltaiccan count on the possibility oftax deductionsup to 65% on installation costs as building renovation costs. With the energy produced it is possible to provide - in addition to self-consumption - also for on-site exchange.
Architecturally integrated photovoltaic
Lately we start talking aboutinnovative architecturally integrated photovoltaic(FII). Ininnovative integrated photovoltaicThree important factors come into play because the photovoltaic module becomes an integral part of the structure in order to also improve its aesthetic appearance. The photovoltaic material that constitutes the external surface has the task of:
- act as a barrier to rainwater, snow and ice
- offer a walkable surface
- ensure the evacuation of humid air and condensation
- the integrated photovoltaic components must offer equal or better thermal efficiency of the components they replace
Ininnovative integrated photovoltaicthe photovoltaic module comes off the assembly line as a simple laminate and, by definition, the system is an integral part of the building envelope. It seems like a trivial distinction but with this variation, the photovoltaic it becomesbuilding material.
In the context ofintegrated photovoltaic, from the early 2000s the so-called bioclimatic architecture peeped out"Dichroic coatings",these act as selective optical filters or assolar concentrators upon spectral selection, they change color, manage heat and produce, together with other layers sensitive to solar radiation, energy according to external circumstances such as the angle of solar radiation or its intensity. Despite considerable technological advances, dichroic coatings are struggling to take off: an efficient production chain for the manufacture of materials is lacking and the need for cost containment looms.
Other alternative forms ofintegrated photovoltaichave timidly appeared in the field of furniture, an example of which are chairs, umbrellas and other furnishing accessories that integrate thin-film photovoltaic or amorphous silicon cells such as the photovoltaic table.