How to grow broad beans: instructions oncultivation of broad beansin the garden or in pots. The use of broad beans as a fertilizer. Temperatures, harvest and care to devote to plants.
The Fava beans, plants belonging to the legume family, are native to Asia and love a temperate climate. Let's see in detail how to grow broad beans following all the necessary indications.
Broad beans, sowing period
If you are wonderingwhen to sow the beans, the answer is not so obvious.
In southern Italy, three different eras can be exploited. When the sowing it must be done in autumn or at the beginning of winter, the harvest can begin after six months. So theFava beanswith autumn-winter sowing they are harvested in spring. This option is only possible in the temperate areas of Italy.
The third epoch ofsowing of broad beans, the only one possible for those who wantgrow broad beansin the north of Italy, it falls in spring.
THEbroad bean seeds, to germinate and thrive, they love temperatures between 15 and 20 ° C. Based on your geographical area, you can choose thesowing periodbest. Know that temperatures, in order to prune the harvest forward, should never drop below 5 ° C (this is why in some locations in southern Italy it is possible sow broad beans even in early winter!).
In cold areas, therefore, it is advisable to sow in spring, although in this case, due to the sharp rise in temperatures typical of summer, the duration of the production cycle will be halved and the harvest shorter.
How to grow beans in pots
Having clarified the sowing period, let's move on to another very common question: they can grow beans in pots? Yes, but is it worth it? It depends on your expectations. Broad beans need a lot of space and a poorly maintained plant won't yield large yields. Furthermore, to increase the production of potted beans, you will need to dedicate extra care (fertilizer and topping). Each single fruit contains 6-8 seeds.
You can grow several broad bean plants in pots at an amateur level. For space, choose deep pots with a diameter of 30 cm per plant. In the classic 70 x 30 planter, you can put three plants. To increase the production ofbeans grown in pots, you can perform the topping and administer specific fertilizer as described below.
For the cultivation of broad beanspartly clayey, well-drained soils are preferred, which prevent the formation of water stagnation.
Also, to grow beans in pots, choose very productive varieties. You will need a stake because when topped, plants easily exceed 100cm in height. Which variety to choose? Get advice from the agricultural consortium based on your geographical area, or, among others variety more productive, you can buy the acquadolce beans (organic seeds) that you find on "this Amazon page".
How to sow broad beans
Before proceeding with sowing, prepare the soil with a more or less deep dig. Broad beans have an intense root system, which must not have obstacles, so work the soil well.
Once this is done, drill 5 cm deep holes with the help of a wooden awl, or prepare deep grooves between 5 and 8 cm.
How to grow broad beans in the garden?The furrows will be made at a distance of about 50 - 60 cm between them, while the seeds, on the same row, must be spaced about 30 cm.
With the prescribed distance, you will give each individual plant enough space to develop optimally.
Once the seeds have been placed, proceed with a first light irrigation.
Then proceed to water when the soil is dry. Irrigation, therefore, will be commensurate with the contingent environmental situations of the individual seasons.
How to grow broad beans
Thebroad bean plantsfear prolonged periods of drought, therefore, thesowingspring beans, from this point of view, need more care! You have to be careful of both drought and water stagnation: the so-called "bean charcoal"Is nothing more than a fungus that affects the roots of beans that have been exposed to excessive humidity. Between one irrigation and another, wait until the soil is completely dry.
Once in bloom, if you want to stimulate the growth of the plant so as to increase the production of beans - especially if you wantgrow broad beans in pots - you will need to continue topping.
Growing broad beans: useful tips
Topping the broad beans: during the growth of the plants, it will be advisable to trim the seedlings, also to prevent the threat of aphid infestations.
Plant support: in case of excessive fruit production, it may be necessary to equip the plants with a support, especially if the area is particularly ventilated. An obligatory choice for those who wantgrow broad beans in potsor in flower boxes.
Tamping of the beans: in case of winter sowing, the broad bean must be tucked up to protect it from the cold; tamping consists in accumulating earth around the stem, using a spade. This process must be carried out as soon as the plants sprout, with the aim of isolating them from the cold and also from the possible attack of weeds.
Weeding the beans: the plant needs to be worked on the soil to ensure a certain oxygenation to the soil and to have a better permeability.
Fertilization of broad beans: the best fertilizer for growing beans is ammonium phosphate, an ammonium salt of hydrochloric acid.
Diseases of broad beans: the black broad bean aphid is the insect that attacks broad beans the most. Among the most serious diseases are the deadly gray mold and anthracnose of the bean.
Sowing of broad beans: for faster germination, just soak the seeds for a few days before sowing.
Broad beans as fertilizer
TheFava beanslike all legumes, they can be used as fertilizers for the soil. The beans grown to fertilize the soil cannot be used for food purposes. The reason? The broad bean plants to be used as fertilizer should be treated with the green manure technique, i.e. cut and mixed with the soil before flowering.
The beans that produced the fruit are still useful for the soil even if they release smaller quantities of nitrogen. In this case, the residues of previous crops must be buried superficially. The roots of these plants ensure a fertilization of the earth for subsequent crops.
At the end of cultivation, therefore, nothing is thrown away! While plant residues can be used for green manuring, the peels are also useful in the vegetable garden and in the kitchen. For all information: recycle the bean peels.