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Dog leishmaniasis, a dangerous disease typical of this animal: it affects it from late spring until October. It is chronic, the dog leishmaniasis, and affects the whole organism, with an incubation period ranging from months to almost 7 years, with the most varied symptoms, sometimes difficult to recognize. There dog leishmaniasis is a zoonosis, it also rarely affects humans, and even less often the cat, but direct infection from dog to man is not possible, only from man to man or from dog to dog, because to convey the disease it is always necessary the pappatacio.
Dog leishmaniasis: the causes
The onset of the dog leishmaniasis it is linked to the presence of a parasite belonging to the class of protozoa: the Leishmania infantum. Transmission, in Italy and Europe, takes place via the Phlebotomus papatasi, the small, yellow and hairy pappatacio that stings in summer, especially in the evening, when there are about 19-20 degrees or more. He is the vector of the dog leishmaniasis which, without, cannot be transmitted.
When the phlebotomus bites a dog that is already a carrier, it becomes infected and carries it dog leishmaniasis to another specimen simply by pricking it. This is a quick process, but then the leishmaniasis potentially has a very long incubation time, it can range from six months to more and more years.
Dog leishmaniasis: symptoms
Dog leishmaniasis it can be asymptomatic for a long time, then just a drop in the immune defenses and symptoms appear, even severe ones. The owner does not always notice in time that the dog is sick. especially in areas where the dog leishmaniasis it is not endemic - for example in northern Italy - while in the coastal areas, where it is widespread, the owners are more attentive to the problem.
Among the first symptoms we find the decrease in appetite and the consequent weight loss, which facilitates the progression of the disease, and then the abnormal growth of the nails, even strongly curved, and the dull hair rich in dandruff. The most common symptoms of dog leishmaniasis are dry exfoliative dermatitis with dandruff and hair loss. The volume of the spleen increases, skin nodules form, uveitis and anemia arise, the dog begins to suffer from joint pain and kidney failure, also showing vomiting and, but rarely, diarrhea.
Not all at once, but the above list of symptoms of dog leishmaniasis, is to make people understand the amount of signals to be able to grasp, each one different from the other. The appearance of dandruff and the loss of hair remain the most immediate and frequent.
For all the info: leishmaniasis initial symptoms
Dog leishmaniasis: diagnosis
For the leishmaniasis of canand the diagnosis is made with the appropriate annual blood tests. The degree of anemia and renal and hepatic function are assessed, there is protein electrophoresis to indicate the stage of the disease and serological tests that assess the presence of dog leishmaniasis. However, there are also false negatives, to be sure you can use PCR.
Dog leishmaniasis: the cure
There dog leishmaniasis, with an increasingly growing incidence, unfortunately, and in territorial expansion, it does not have a fulminating course, fortunately, there is no way to keep the symptoms at bay. In the most fortunate cases even to eradicate it in its entirety. The two drugs against the dog leishmaniasis I am the methyl-glucamine antimoniate - the Glucantime - older, and miltefosina- il Milteforan - latest issue, which is always associated withAllopurinol, for a period of at least six months. This makes it clear that the therapy is long, and it must also be adapted to the health of the dog taking into account that during the first days there is a paradoxical but expected worsening of symptoms.
Dog leishmaniasis: prevention and prophylaxis
Prevent the dog leishmaniasis it is possible, there is nothing infallible but you can try by applying the appropriate repellent pesticides prescribed by the veterinarian during the whole period at risk, even if the dog is always at home, even there it would not be bad to equip him with an oil collar of neem.
There is also a vaccine for the prevention of dog leishmaniasis which does not ensure 100% protection, therefore it is better to protect the dogs even avoiding walks at sunset, installing dense mesh mosquito nets on the windows, using insecticides against mosquito bites and environmental insecticides for domestic use.
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